Hive 学习笔记


什么是数据库仓库(Data Warehouse)

From Oracle9i Data Warehousing docs:

A data warehouse is a relational database that is designed for query and analysis rather than for transaction processing. It usually contains historical data derived from transaction data, but it can include data from other sources. It separates analysis workload from transaction workload and enables an organization to consolidate data from several sources.

In addition to a relational database, a data warehouse environment includes an extraction, transportation, transformation, and loading (ETL) solution, an online analytical processing (OLAP) engine, client analysis tools, and other applications that manage the process of gathering data and delivering it to business users.


From wikipedia:

In computing, Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) refers to a process in database usage and especially in data warehousing that:

  • Extracts data from homogeneous or heterogeneous data sources
  • Transforms the data for storing it in proper format or structure for querying and analysis purpose
  • Loads it into the final target (database, more specifically, operational data store, data mart, or data warehouse)

什么是 Hive

  • Hive 是建立在 Hadoop HDFS 上的数据库仓库基础建构
  • Hive 可以用来进行数据库提取转化加载(ETL)
  • Hive 定义了简单的类似 SQL 查询语言,称为 HQL,它允许熟悉 SQL 的用户查询数据
  • Hive 允许熟悉 MapReduce 的开发者自定义 mapper 和 reducer 来处理内建的 mapper 和 reducer 无法完成的复杂工作
  • Hive 是 SQL 解析引擎,它将 SQL 语句转化成 M/R Job,然后在 Hadoop 执行
  • Hive 的表其实就是 HDFS 的目录/文件

Hive 的元数据

  • Hive 将元数据存储在数据库中(metastore),支持 mysql, derby 等
  • Hive 中的元数据包括: 表的名字,表的列和分区及其属性,表的属性(是否为外部表),表的数据所在目录等

Hive Architecture